SOAP and WATER
Just the friction from scrubbing with soap (any kind of soap) and water can break the coronavirus’s protective envelope. “Scrub like you’ve got sticky stuff on the surface and you really need to get it off,” says Richard Sachleben, an organic chemist and a member of the American Chemical Society. Discard the towel or leave it in a bowl of soapy water for a while to destroy any virus particles that may have survived.
Using antibacterial soap won’t give you added protection against the coronavirus because it kills bacteria, not viruses. You can still use it as long as you scrub.
This is also the only product on this list that we recommend using to combat the novel coronavirus on skin. Everything else should be used only on surfaces.
As of August, the Environmental Protection Agency had certified 16 disinfectant products for being able to kill SARS-CoV-2. Among them are products from Lysol, Clorox, and Lonza, which all share the same active ingredient: quaternary ammonium.
The EPA also has a running list of hundreds of disinfectants that are effective against similar viruses. They haven’t been tested specifically for effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2, but they should work.
If you can find these cleaning products, it’s important to follow label instructions. You may need to leave the surface saturated for several minutes for it to work effectively. Many people have also dangerously misused cleaning products during the pandemic, which the CDC says has led to an uptick in calls to poison control centers across the country.
If you can’t get your hands on any EPA-registered disinfectants, you can use any of the products listed below, which are also effective against the novel coronavirus.
The CDC recommends a diluted bleach solution—⅓ cup bleach per 1 gallon of water or 4 teaspoons bleach per 1 quart of water—for virus disinfection. Wear gloves while using bleach, and never mix it with ammonia—or anything, in fact—except water. (The only exception is when doing laundry with detergent.) Once the solution is mixed, don’t keep it for longer than a day because the bleach will lose potency and can degrade certain plastic containers.
“Always clean the surface with water and detergent first, since many materials can react with bleach and deactivate it,” Sachleben says. “Dry the surface, then apply the bleach solution and let it sit for at least 10 minutes before wiping it off.”
Bleach can corrode metal over time, so Sachleben recommends that people not get into the habit of cleaning their faucets and stainless steel products with it. Because bleach is harsh for many countertops as well, you should rinse surfaces with water after disinfecting to prevent discoloration or damage to the surface.
If you can’t find liquid bleach, you can use bleach tablets instead. You may have seen Evolve bleach tablets, which dissolve in water, at Amazon or Walmart. Just follow the dilution instructions on the packaging (1 tablet is equal to ½ cup liquid bleach). A label on the bottle states the product is not a disinfectant—Evolve hasn’t put the product through the EPA’s registration process—but, chemically speaking, it’s the same as liquid bleach.
Alcohol solutions with at least 70 percent alcohol are effective against the coronavirus on hard surfaces.
First, clean the surface with water and detergent. Apply the alcohol solution—do not dilute it—and let it sit on the surface for at least 30 seconds to disinfect. Alcohol is generally safe for all surfaces but can discolor some plastics, Sachleben says.
According to the CDC, household (3 percent) hydrogen peroxide is effective in deactivating rhinovirus, the virus that causes the common cold, within 6 to 8 minutes of exposure. Rhinovirus is more difficult to destroy than coronaviruses, so hydrogen peroxide should be able to break down the coronavirus in less time. Spray it on the surface to be cleaned, and let it sit on the surface for at least 1 minute.
Hydrogen peroxide is not corrosive, so it’s okay to use it on metal surfaces. But similar to bleach, it can discolor fabrics if you get it on your clothes.
“It’s great for getting into hard-to-reach crevices,” Sachleben says. “You can pour it on the area, and you don’t have to wipe it off because it essentially decomposes into oxygen and water.”